Key Trends - Advantages of MHD Generation - Superconducting Magnets - Metallurgy - Ceramic and Computer Control Technology are all Advancing

The advantages of MHD generation over the other conventional methods of generation.

"It will not be long before MHD power generation transforms itself from non-conventional to conventional energy sources."

1) Step Increase” power generation efficiency. By using much higher cycle temperatures. The conversion efficiency of a MHD system can be 80% as compared to 45%-55% for the most efficient steam turbine generator or power plant.

2) Large amount of power is generated.

3) Magnetohydrodynamic power plants lends itself particularly well to use in large size stationary power plants and makes possible operation at efficiencies far beyond those of existing equipment.

4) It has ability to reach the full power level as soon as started, almost directly. Direct power extraction.

5) Because of higher efficiency, the overall generation cost of an MHD plant will be less. Less overall generation cost.

6) The more efficient heat utilization would decreases the amount of heat discharged to environment and the cooling water requirements would also be lower. In MHD the thermal pollution of water is eliminated, (clean Energy System).

7) The higher efficiency means better fuel utilization. The reduce fuel consumption would offer additional economic and social benefits. Magnetohydrodynamics as an electricity generation process holds the possibility of very efficient fuel utilization because the extremely high temperatures at which it operates correlate to a high Carnot efficiency.

8) Advantageous as topping cycles - Non-disruptive to existing technologies.

9) The working fluid is circulated, and there are no moving mechanical parts. This reduces the mechanical losses to nil and makes the operation more dependable. An engine that does not need a rotor or turbine to create motion, therefore nearly eliminating engine degradation caused from moving parts. It has no moving parts, so more reliable and mechanically elegant, no mechanical losses. MHD is less complicated than the conventional generators having simple technology.

10) MHD generators are attractive for the production of large electrical Power Plants.

11) It is estimated that by 2040, almost 70 % of the total electricity generated in the world will be from MHD generators.

12) The price of MHD generators is much lower than conventional generators.

13) MHD is applicable with all kind of heat source. extensive use of MHD can help in better fuel utilization.

14) MHD has very high efficiency, which is higher than most of the other conventional or non-conventional method of generation.

15) The higher efficiency is due to recycling the energy from the hot plasma gas to standard steam turbines. After the plasma gas passes through the MHD generator, it is still hot enough to boil water to drive steam turbines that produce additional power.

16) Improved Combined-Cycle Thermal Efficiency.

17) Pulsed Power and High Power Density.

18) Requires little maintenance.

19) Compact systems Small footprint & potentially portable. Size of Power plant is small compared to other fossil fuel plants, efficient and compact!

20) Computational Modeling, today, we have three dimensional multi-physics models that could be utilized to design a more effective system.

21) The ability to create a force between two different mediums, without contact.

22) Flexible Systems: MHD Hybrid Power Plants can utilize any heat source, such as solar, geothermal, combustion of a fuel e.g., oil, coal, natural gas, chemical reaction, high-grade waste heat, Atomic MHD Power.

23) Improved CO2 capture performance Synergistic with oxy-fuel approach.

24) Large amount of pollution free power is generated. The Closed cycle system produces power free of pollution. Reduced CO2 Emissions.

25) The Opportunity:

• $8 trillion currently spent globally on fossil fuels; $2 trillion in the U.S.

• Each year, tens of billions are spent on energy R&D in search of alternative solutions

• Over $1 trillion annually expected to be spent on global energy infrastructure through 2030

• Global energy demand has nearly doubled over the past 20 years, and is projected to increase 56% between 2010 and 2040

• Existing sources of renewable energy are expected to satisfy only a small portion (15%) of 2040 demand
– Wind and solar are relatively poor sources of baseload power
– The remainder will be supported primarily by fossil fuel consumption, which is expected to increase nearly 46% over the same time period.

"As an energy device, the MHD generator has very interesting characteristics which make it suitable for a variety of applications. In an MHD generator the functions of -both turbine and electric power generator are combined into a single unit with a simple compact geometry. There are no rotating parts which eliminates vibrations and noise and limits wear and tear. The MHD systems operate at higher temperatures than mechanical turbines with consequent saving in area, weight and cost of the radiator of the space power systems and it also leads to better efficiencies. High power turbines operating at high temperatures and speeds are less reliable than MHD systems due to high stress values. The DC type electric power output and the start-up time as low as a few milliseconds makes this power generation scheme very attractive." - University of Florida - DOE Grant No. DE-FG05-93ER75871

"Of all the direct energy conversion methods exploitable, the MHD Power Generation seems to be the most promising for a utility system" - Power Plant Engineering - Third Edition By P.K.Nag

A magnetohydrodynamic generator has been described as a magnet on the tail of a jet engine. A super-hot plasma is created, ionizing the atoms of the fuel mixture, source of electrically conductive fluid. The magnetic field deflects positive and negative charges in different directions. Collecting plates-electrodes, a conductor through which electricity enters for the charges providing a DC voltage out.

Plasma the Fourth Sate of Matter.
Plasma is a state of matter similar to gas in which a certain portion of the particles have been ionized.

Plasma (from Greek, "anything formed") is one of the four fundamental states of matter, the others being solid, liquid, and gas. A plasma has properties unlike those of the other states.

In a MHD generator a stream of fast-moving plasma-gas is heated to the point where its energetic enough to ionize an atom and its electrons have been stripped from the atoms and becomes positively charged plasma.

A plasma is a hot ionized gas consisting of approximately equal numbers of positively charged ions and negatively charged electrons. The characteristics of plasmas are significantly different from those of ordinary neutral gases so that plasmas are considered a distinct "fourth state of matter." For example, because plasmas are made up of electrically charged particles, they are strongly influenced by electric and magnetic fields while neutral gases are not.

The Plasma Universe
It is estimated that 99% of the matter in the observable universe is in the plasma state...hence the expression "plasma universe."

Electrically Charged Gases Known as Plasma

A Plasma is the Most Disordered State of Matter

Making Plasma
The Plasma used in MHD is created by a process called thermal ionization, where the temperature of the gas is raised to the point so that the electrons are no longer bound to the atoms of gas. These free electrons make the plasma gas electrically conductive. To create such a plasma though thermal ionization alone requires extraordinary high temperatures.

Seeded inert gas: The gas temperature can be lowered significantly by seeding the gas with an alkali metal, such as Potassium Nitrate, Cesium or Dusty Plasmas/Plasma Crystals Dusty Plasma - Instead of an alkali seed - Ceremic oxides are promising candidates. The alkali metal ionizes easily at lower temperatures.

The Stacking of Heat Engines

Combined Cycle
Topping with MHD Generators

1) MHD (magneto hydrodynamics) engine (40-65% conversion) - MHD Topping Layer Extract Energy 1260C

2) Brayton engine (29 -35% conversion) - Brayton/Core Layer Extract Energy 980C

3) Organic Rankin engine (5-7%c conversion). - Organic Rankin Bottom Layer Extract Energy 250C

This combination will make the CSPU MHD, hybrid generating system the most efficient way of converting energy into electricity.



Atomic MHD Power - Nuclear-uranium plasma - self-sustained fissioning plasma for closed cycle MHD power generation using a plasma core reactor. A gas nuclear reactor (or gas fueled reactor) is a proposed kind of nuclear reactor in which the nuclear fuel would be in a gaseous state rather than liquid or solid. In this type of reactor, the only temperature-limiting materials would be the reactor walls. Conventional reactors have stricter limitations because the core would melt if the fuel temperature were to rise too high. It may also be possible to confine gaseous fission fuel magnetically, electrostatically or electrodynamically so that it would not touch (and melt) the reactor walls. A potential benefit of the gaseous reactor core concept is that instead of relying on the traditional Rankine or Brayton conversion cycles, can extract electricity magnetohydrodynamically. A gaseous core reactor delivering thousands of megawatt fission power acts as the heat source for a high-temperature MHD power converter.

"Magnetohydrodynamics as an electricity generation process holds the possibility of very efficient fuel utilization because the extremely high temperatures at which it operates correlate to a high Carnot efficiency" - Hyperphysices - Department of Physics - Georgia State University

"MHD (Magneto-Hydrodynamic) Electric Generator will operate more efficiently than conventional power plants." - NASA - Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Japan

"MHD is attractive for space use, because it has no moving mechanical parts and therefore requires little or no maintenance." - New York Times

"The MHD cycle should provide very high conversion efficiency, possibly approaching 70%." - Cicconradi et al 1997, Kayukawa, 2000

The combination of 2000°C plasma and super-cooled magnets provide the mechanism to produce electricity with greater than 60% efficiency. No other non-electro-mechanical means of power generation exceeds 45% in efficiency. Furthermore, with no moving parts, this design has the potential for much greater useful full-time power production life.

Use of Concentrated Solar Power to produce the very hot thermal medium is, in itself, a proven renewal energy source. By integrating CSP with the MHD generator as a topping mechanism we gain a synergism that no other power generator to date possesses. Furthermore by using the high-temperature exhaust plasma to drive a closed-Brayton cycle turbine electricity generator thereafter, we gain additional power output that further amplifies the efficiency of the integrated closed loop system.

MHD Generators Are Energy Conversion Machines

"Magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) electric generator works on the principle that any conductor of electricity that is moved through a magnetic field will generate in itself a current of electricity. This applies not only to copper wires (as in conventional generators), but to gases, which become conductors when they are made so hot that some of their atoms separate (ionize) into electrically charged particles. If forced through a magnetic field, a stream of ionized gas causes an electrical current to flow across it." - TIME Mag

Superiority of MHD Power Generation
Superconducting Permanent Magnets
CSPU on BBC Radio
Concentrated Sunlight Heat Electricity - Solar MHD
Highly Disruptive Technology
CSPU Intellectual Property Portfolio
CSPU Management
CSPU in Forbes
CSPU in the Press

Related Links
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Licenses Novel “Magnetohydrodynamics” Technology
Letter from Jian Sun, PhD - Director, Center for Future Energy Systems - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute